Horticulture Commodity Trading Platform – BHM Agrimart

Agrepreneurship in Promotion of Small Scale Food Processing Units

What Is Agripreneurship?

The food processing industry plays a dynamic role in the economy of any country because it links agriculture to industry. The food processing industry is responsible for agricultural diversification, increased value-added opportunities, and the production of surplus goods that can be exported. India's food processing industry is one of the world's largest in terms of production, consumption, export, and growth. The sector has enormous potential to add to the country's development and job prospects.

Consumer foods (snacks, beverages, etc.), dairy, meat and poultry, fish, grains and cereals, and fruits and vegetables are all part of the food processing industry. Fruits and vegetables, as well as meat and poultry, account for roughly 40% of total household consumption. The Indian food industry is on the verge of a massive expansion, with its exposure to global food trade growing year after year. Due to its enormous potential for value addition, the food sector in India has emerged as a high-growth and high-profit sector, especially in the food processing industry.

Food processing is a method or procedure for converting raw ingredients into well-cooked and well-preserved foods for humans and livestock. Food processing takes raw, clean, harvested crops or slaughtered and butchered animals and transforms them into everyday food items. A variety of products are nutrient-dense, simple to prepare, and have a long shelf life. They are attractively packaged and have good marketability.

Fruit and vegetables, spices, meat and poultry, milk and milk goods, beer and beverages, fisheries, plantations, grain processing, packaged drinks and consumer items such as confectionery, chocolates and cocoa products, soya-based products, packaged drinking water, high protein meals, snacks, and so on make up India's food processing market, which is highly fragmented.

The food processing industry is a growing industry that is critical to India's growth, owing to the synergies and linkages it fosters between the two pillars of our economy: industry and agriculture.

Small Scale Food Processing Units

Food production on a small scale is necessary all over the world. Individual processors can easily diversify into processing to increase their incomes, farmers and fishermen can easily diversify into processing to increase their incomes, and processors can gain an income from comparatively limited scales of output due to high added value. Small-scale food production will help policymakers build jobs, boost food stability, and improve health standards.

The food sector in India has a lot of area for growth and benefit. You'll also find an overabundance of openings here. In terms of value, the Indian food and grocery industry is the world's sixth-largest. Furthermore, the food processing industry accounts for 32% of the overall food market in the world.

It is simple to start a food company. And, since our country's population level is high, you'll still have a demand for your stuff. In addition, financial institutions, such as banks, offer various forms of loans and subsidies to food entrepreneurs.

A List Of Some Small Capital Food Processing Business Ideas:

In India, the bakery is one of the most profitable food manufacturing businesses. Getting one's own or leased room is a good place to start. The right quality and marketing strategies are the most important factors in achieving success in the bakery industry. You would need to select individual items for your bakery company based on demand and financial considerations.


Under-ripe bananas are sliced into slices, dipped in a sugar solution, dried in the sun or the oven, baked, and served as a snack or dessert. These can be sold both locally and internationally. This is a small-scale company that you can start.


Manufacturing beaten rice is a relatively simple enterprise to launch in the suburbs, small cities, or rural areas. Infrastructure and equipment need only a limited capital investment. Locally, the raw material is also available.


Quality bread delivers fibre and carbs in a compact, low-fat format that is also tasty. Good bread is still in style. The bread-making industry offers a wide range of opportunities. Both urban and suburban areas are still in need of new, high-quality bread. The method of making bread is also simple.


Nowadays, an energy drink is a common way to relieve tension. Energy drink manufacturing is currently one of the most lucrative and common food processing industries. Starting an energy drink distribution company is expensive and necessitates a well-thought-out sales marketing campaign.


Food grains are milled to make flour. Various kinds of flour are used in the preparation of various foods. Wheat flour, brown flour, whole wheat flour, whole meal flour, and so on are examples. The manufacturing procedure is straightforward. This is a small-scale enterprise that can be started with basic machinery.


Honey processing is the practice of separating wax and other unnecessary foreign particles from honey. There are two ways to set up the processor unit. Either a manual or an electrically operated mechanism is used. The manufacturing procedure is straight forward. Additionally, you can start a company on a small scale and from your house.


An enormous market need for bottled drinking water has arisen as a result of the health consciousness and the lack of pure drinking water. People nowadays tend to drink bottled drinking water both outdoors and inside their homes.

Food Industry Processes

The food industry has evolved into a widely diversified industry, with production ranging from small, traditional, family-run operations that are labour-intensive to massive, capital-intensive, highly mechanised industrial processes. Many food enterprises are almost entirely reliant on local farming or fishing. Previously, this included seasonal manufacturing and seasonal employee recruiting. Food processing and storage technology advancements have relieved some of the demand on staff to prepare food efficiently to avoid spoilage. As a result, seasonal work variations have decreased.

However, some businesses continue to engage in seasonal operations, such as the harvesting of fresh fruits and vegetables and increased manufacturing of baked goods, sweets, and other products during the holiday season. Women and migrant employees make up the majority of seasonal staff.

The rapid technological evolution in the food industries is explained by demographic demand, unequal allocation of agricultural wealth, and the need to ensure food product preservation to enable improved distribution. Constant economic and marketing forces force the industry to develop new and different goods for the market.

Demographic demand, uneven distribution of agricultural resources, and the need to ensure food commodity preservation to allow better distribution explain the food industry's rapid technological evolution. Constant economic and marketing pressures push the industry to manufacture new and exciting products for the consumer, while other businesses have been producing the same commodity in the same manner for decades. When launching new inventions or processes, highly industrialized facilities often use procedures that seem to be outdated.

Processes Of Production

Processing food products involves a wide range of operations that can only be explained after a thorough examination of each sector, but the following general techniques are used: fermentation, heating, dehydration, and distillation. In bakeries, breweries, the wine and spirits business, and the cheese products industry, fermentation is achieved by adding a microorganism to a previously prepared food.

Cooking is used in a variety of industrial processes, including canning and curing beef, fish, vegetables, and fruits; ready-to-eat meat processing plants (e.g., chicken nuggets); bakeries, biscuit factories, and breweries, among others. In other instances, cooking takes place in a vacuum-sealed container, resulting in a concentrated product (e.g., sugar refining and tomato-paste production).

Aside from sun drying, as in many tropical fruits, dehydration can be done in hot air (fixed dryers or drying tunnels), by touch (on a drying drum heated by steam, as in the instant coffee and tea industries), or by vacuum drying. (often in conjunction with filtering) and lyophilization (freeze-drying), which involves freezing the substance solid and then vacuum drying it in a heated chamber. Spirits are generated by distillation. The fermented mixture is vaporised in a still to extract grain or fruit, and the diluted vapor is stored as liquid ethyl alcohol.

Processes Of Preservation

It is critical to avoid food supplies from deteriorating, both for product safety and the more severe danger of pollution or harm to customers' health.

Food security can be divided into six categories:

1. Sterilization by radiation
2. Sterilization with antibiotics
3. chemical reactions
4. loss of hydration
5. the use of refrigeration

In a nutshell, the first three strategies kill microbes, while the latter merely slow their development. Raw products like fish and beef, as well as fruits and vegetables, are taken fresh and preserved using one of the methods mentioned above, or a combination of foods is prepared to form a commodity or dish, which is then preserved. Soups, meat dishes, and puddings are examples of such products.

Low-temperature processes include storing goods in a cold store (at a temperature dictated by the quality of the products), freezing, and deep freezing, which enables foodstuffs to be frozen in their natural fresh state using different slow and rapid freezing methods.

The substance to be dried is frozen and put in a sealed chamber with freeze drying. The pressure in the chamber is minimised and held below 1 mm Hg. The layer is heated, the surface ice melts, and the resulting water vapour is sucked out by the vacuum pump.

Depending on the cooking temperature and length, high-temperature processes may kill bacteria. Sterilization entails exposing the already canned food to steam in a sealed tube, such as an autoclave or continuous cooker. Pasteurization, which is used to preserve liquids such as fruit juice, soda, milk, and cream, is done at a lower temperature and over a shorter period. Smoking is primarily used on fish, ham, and bacon to ensure dehydration and impart a distinct taste.

In certain countries, ionising radiation sterilisation is widely used on spices to avoid waste and spoilage. Many foods will have their refrigerated shelf life significantly increased by using "radiation pasteurisation" at even lower doses. Radiation sterilisation of canned foods, on the other hand, necessitates such a heavy dose that undesirable flavours and odours result. Another method of electromagnetic emission that is currently being used in the food industry is microwave sterilisation. It can thaw raw frozen ingredients quickly before freezing them, as well as heat frozen cooked foods in 2 to 3 minutes. Because of the low moisture content loss, the food's look and flavour are preserved.

Drying is a popular method of preservation. The oldest and most commonly used method of food storage is sun drying. Foods can now be dried in a variety of ways, including air, superheated steam, vacuum, inert gas, and direct heat. There are several different types of dryers, depending on the material, the preferred shape of the finished product, and so on. Heat is absorbed into the water in the food, which is then vaporized, resulting in dehydration. After that, the water vapour is eliminated.

Foods that contain a significant amount of water (5 to 30%) but do not promote microbial growth are known as intermediate-moisture foods. The challenging technology is a spin-off from space exploration. Acidity, redox potential, humectants, and preservatives are all carefully regulated for open-shelf stability. To date, the majority of advancements have been in pet food. Fruit and vegetables must be washed, cleaned, blanched, possibly graded, peeled, stalked, shelled, and stoned until they can be stored. Many of the ingredients must be diced, sliced, minced, or pressed before they can be used.

The Packaging

Food can be packaged in a variety of ways, including canning, aseptic packing, and frozen packaging.

1. Canning


Canning is the practice of packing washed food into a can that is covered with a lid, whether it is raw or partially cooked but not deliberately sterilised. The can is then heated to a certain temperature for some time, normally by steam under pressure, to allow heat to penetrate to the centre of the can, killing the microbial life. After cooling in either air or chlorinated water, the can is labelled and packed.

Over time, there have been changes in processing. Continuous sterilisers reduce impact damage to cans and allow for cooling and drying in a closed environment. The method is the same as traditional canning, but the products are said to have superior flavour properties due to shorter sterilisation cycles. To prevent damage to the heat seals and resulting bacterial spoilage, the retorting process must be carefully monitored.

2. Aseptic Packaging

There have been some recent advancements in food aseptic packaging. The method differs significantly from traditional canning. The food container and closure are sterilised separately in the aseptic process, and the filling and closing are performed in a sterile environment. The heat treatment of the foodstuff can be accurately managed and is independent of the scale or content of the bottle, resulting in optimum product consistency. The process is expected to become more commonly used because it can save resources in the long run.

3.Frozen Packaging

All ways of deep-freezing fresh food at temperatures below their freezing point are used in the frozen food industry, resulting in ice crystals developing in the watery tissues. Raw or partially cooked food can be frozen (e.g., animal carcasses or made-up meat dishes, fish or fish products, vegetables, fruits, poultry, eggs, ready-made meals, bread and cakes). Seasonal goods should be available at all times because frozen unpreserved products can be shipped over long distances and processed for processing or distribution as demand occurs. Food that would be frozen must be in excellent condition and prepared in stringent sanitary conditions.

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